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Common used IoT Technology Simple Analysis

The Internet of things is based on the computer internet, using technology such as RFID and wireless data communications to construct an 鈥淚nternet of Things鈥 that covers the world. The internet of things will be all kinds of information sensing devices, such as Radio Frequency Identification Device, Laser Scanner, Global Positioning System GPS and so on, which are combined with the Internet and form a huge network, the goal is to get all the things connected to the Internet, and the goods (commodity) can communicate with each other without human intervention. The idea of 鈥淚nternet of things鈥 is formed on the basis of the 鈥淚nternet Concept鈥, which core is still the internet(as picture 1).


What is 鈥淣etwork Technology鈥? The so-called network is the ability to communicate between devices. For example, one of your mobile phones is connected to your router, and the data transfer between your phone and your router is a 鈥渘etwork鈥.Then your family router connects with interchanger by using "cat" and fiber optics, this is also network. Thinking of mobile phones, routers, switches as a whole, there's a tree network between them. According to the communication between the device nodes, they form a variety of topological graph(as picture 2).


What I mentioned the 鈥済roups鈥 of 鈥 network鈥 above is the connection method of devices. The "net" in the concept of "network" is generally classified as Local Area Network( LAN) and Wide Area Network(WAN). LAN: As picture 1 shows, A LAN is formed between your three phones and your router, the above-mentioned four devices will be able to communicate. But your three devices only have a narrow range of applications within the LAN. A typical application is: if there are some huge data transfers between devices by LAN, it will be very quick. The speed between the devices can reach up to the writing speed of the hard disk or the maximum transmission speed of the network card; And then there is the bluetooth device on the market, for example, Bluetooth Speaker, it can be understood that a LAN network was built between the bluetooth speaker and the audio source. Wide Area Network(WAN) is a cross-regional data communication network.
There is no strict boundaries between LAN and WAN. For example, you can use the entire Chinese network as a LAN. It鈥檚 just bigger. All connected devices in China can be communicated within this LAN.
The most important thing about the device network is to enable data exchange between devices. Since it's a data exchange, there will be a variety of ways. Let's analyze the application form of the network in a shallow way
Bluetooth Technology
Early bluetooth technology supported only one-to-one communication between two devices within short range, and the devices has the distinction of principal and subordinate. But bluetooth has the advantage of low power consumption and small volume (for example, Bluetooth Earphone). At present, there are two forms of network topology for Bluetooth: Piconet and Scatternet. Piconet can at most allow up to eight devices to make up a LAN, one of them is the main device, the other seven devices are subordinate devices(as picture 3). The main device provides the clock and the jump sequence. One simple application is that your phone plays music via Bluetooth, It also transmits data from other mobile phones.


Maybe in order to conform to the trend of the Internet of things, support for IPv6 dedicated channel inline is added to the bluetooth 4.1 standard. Bluetooth devices that were previously unable to access the Internet can be with the ability to surf the Internet by this network method after connecting with Bluetooth 4.1 or above devices. But for present situation now, Bluetooth's most extensive use is in one-to-one near-field communication, such as bluetooth headsets, bluetooth mouse, etc .
WIFI Wireless Technology
Like Bluetooth, WIFI technology is a short-range wireless technology. There is a broader use of WIFI technology in the Internet of things. The reason is that its network is mature and can be hundreds of meters long, it also has the characteristics of rapid transmission speed. For end users, only a wireless router is needed, then you can operate according to the corresponding requirement and WIFI devices can be connected to the Internet. When the device is connected to the wan by a router, you can remotely control the device wherever you are. At present, the general wireless smart single product adopts this way basically. For example, some time ago, the very popular smart outlet increased the function of the Internet by using WIFI technology on traditional sockets(as picture 4).

However, everything is balanced, since WIFI technology network range is wide, the power consumption is relatively large.
Zigbee Technology
A short, low-power wireless communication technology. Zigbee network topology graph can be varied, there are net types, star types and tree types, and all Zigbee nodes are self-organized and do not need to be manipulated. There are two devices (such as mobile phone and Bluetooth headphones) conducting matching for Bluetooth network; WIFI network is more complicated than Bluetooth network, but at present it is comparative mature. There need to be three different types of devices in the Zigbee network, respectively are coordinator, repeater, terminal node (as picture 5).


When one Zigbee network is finished, you can extend the network's coverage by adding the repeater and terminal nodes in the network. When data communication occurs in the network, the data is sent from the source device, if the receiver is within the communication range (the distance between the two devices is close), it can receive the data directly; if the receiver is far away from the source devices, transit can be made through the repeater and terminal nodes and finally the data reaches the receiving device.
LoRa Technology
A technology developed by Semech for radio modulated demodulation. At present, this technology seems to be the best one. LoRA Technology also features low power consumption and long distance network, the transmission range can be tens of kilometers. Since an ordinary data emitter of LoRa technology can continuously send information to the receiving gateway of a 20km distance only with only two AA  batteries power, and it can work steadily for more than 10 years. LoRa network supports multiple nodes, it's usually a star distribution. One drawback of RoLa Technology is that the transmission rate is low, And its data transmission range only from hundreds bps to dozens Kbps. LoRa Application Schematic Diagram (as picture 6).


Article and pictures are from Internet, Edit by YSC Marketing Dept.

YSC/Marketing Dept.

June 19th,2017

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